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Johannes Kepler

Johannes Kepler

Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. A key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution, he is best known for his eponymous laws of planetary motion, codified by later astronomers, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy. These works also provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation.

During his career, Kepler was a mathematics teacher at a seminary school in Graz, Austria, where he became an associate of Prince Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg. Later he became an assistant to astronomer Tycho Brahe, and eventually the imperial mathematician to Emperor Rudolf II and his two successors Matthias and Ferdinand II. He was also a mathematics teacher in Linz, Austria, and an adviser to General Wallenstein. Additionally, he did fundamental work in the field of optics, invented an improved version of the refracting telescope (the Keplerian Telescope), and mentioned the telescopic discoveries of his contemporary Galileo Galilei.

Kepler lived in an era when there was no clear distinction between astronomy and astrology, but there was a strong division between astronomy (a branch of mathematics within the liberal arts) and physics (a branch of natural philosophy). Kepler also incorporated religious arguments and reasoning into his work, motivated by the religious conviction and belief that God had created the world according to an intelligible plan that is accessible through the natural light of reason. Kepler described his new astronomy as "celestial physics", as "an excursion into Aristotle's Metaphysics", and as "a supplement to Aristotle's On the Heavens", transforming the ancient tradition of physical cosmology by treating astronomy as part of a universal mathematical physics.

Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei (Italian pronunciation: [ɡaliˈlɛːo ɡaliˈlɛi]; 15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642), was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations and support for Copernicanism. Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy", the "father of modern physics", the "father of science", and "the Father of Modern Science".

His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus, the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter (named the Galilean moons in his honour), and the observation and analysis of sunspots. Galileo also worked in applied science and technology, inventing an improved military compass and other instruments.

Galileo's championing of heliocentrism was controversial within his lifetime, when most subscribed to either geocentrism or the Tychonic system He met with opposition from astronomers, who doubted heliocentrism due to the absence of an observed stellar parallax. The matter was investigated by the Roman Inquisition in 1615, and they concluded that it could only be supported as a possibility, not as an established fact. Galileo later defended his views in Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, which appeared to attack Pope Urban VIII and thus alienated him and the Jesuits, who had both supported Galileo up until this point. He was tried by the Inquisition, found "vehemently suspect of heresy", forced to recant, and spent the rest of his life under house arrest. It was while Galileo was under house arrest that he wrote one of his finest works, Two New Sciences. Here he summarized the work he had done some forty years earlier, on the two sciences now called kinematics and strength of materials.

Nicolaus Copernicus

Nicolaus Copernicus

Nicolaus Copernicus (German: Nikolaus Kopernikus; Italian: Nicolò Copernico; Polish: Mikołaj Kopernik; in his youth, Niclas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance astronomer and the first person to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology which displaced the Earth from the center of the universe.

Copernicus' epochal book, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), published just before his death in 1543, is often regarded as the starting point of modern astronomy and the defining epiphany that began the scientific revolution. His heliocentric model, with the Sun at the center of the universe, demonstrated that the observed motions of celestial objects can be explained without putting Earth at rest in the center of the universe. His work stimulated further scientific investigations, becoming a landmark in the history of science that is often referred to as the Copernican Revolution.

Among the great polymaths of the Renaissance, Copernicus was a mathematician, astronomer, jurist with a doctorate in law, physician, quadrilingual polyglot, classics scholar, translator, artist, Catholic cleric, governor, diplomat and economist.



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   1:  <%@ Page Language="C#" AutoEventWireup="true" Title="AtomicAccordion -- Auto Height" CodeBehind="AutoHeight.aspx.cs" Inherits="Atom.Website.Samples.AtomicAccordion.AutoHeight" %>
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  19:      <form id="form1" runat="server">
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  31:                  <atom:AccordionItem Header="Johannes Kepler">
  32:                      <Template>
  33:                          <img src="../images/scientists/johannes_kepler.jpg" alt="Johannes Kepler" title="Johannes Kepler"
  34:                              class="left-side-image" />
  35:                          <span>
  36:                              <p>
  37:                                  Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician,
  38:                                  astronomer and astrologer. A key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution,
  39:                                  he is best known for his eponymous laws of planetary motion, codified by later astronomers,
  40:                                  based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican
  41:                                  Astronomy. These works also provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton's theory
  42:                                  of universal gravitation.
  43:                              </p>
  44:                              <p>
  45:                                  During his career, Kepler was a mathematics teacher at a seminary school in Graz,
  46:                                  Austria, where he became an associate of Prince Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg. Later
  47:                                  he became an assistant to astronomer Tycho Brahe, and eventually the imperial mathematician
  48:                                  to Emperor Rudolf II and his two successors Matthias and Ferdinand II. He was also
  49:                                  a mathematics teacher in Linz, Austria, and an adviser to General Wallenstein. Additionally,
  50:                                  he did fundamental work in the field of optics, invented an improved version of
  51:                                  the refracting telescope (the Keplerian Telescope), and mentioned the telescopic
  52:                                  discoveries of his contemporary Galileo Galilei.
  53:                              </p>
  54:                              <p>
  55:                                  Kepler lived in an era when there was no clear distinction between astronomy and
  56:                                  astrology, but there was a strong division between astronomy (a branch of mathematics
  57:                                  within the liberal arts) and physics (a branch of natural philosophy). Kepler also
  58:                                  incorporated religious arguments and reasoning into his work, motivated by the religious
  59:                                  conviction and belief that God had created the world according to an intelligible
  60:                                  plan that is accessible through the natural light of reason. Kepler described his
  61:                                  new astronomy as "celestial physics", as "an excursion into Aristotle's Metaphysics",
  62:                                  and as "a supplement to Aristotle's On the Heavens", transforming the ancient tradition
  63:                                  of physical cosmology by treating astronomy as part of a universal mathematical
  64:                                  physics.
  65:                              </p>
  66:                          </span>
  67:                      </Template>
  68:                  </atom:AccordionItem>
  69:                  <atom:AccordionItem Header="Galileo Galilei">
  70:                      <Template>
  71:                          <img src="../images/scientists/galileo_galilei.jpg" alt="Galileo Galilei" title="Galileo Galilei"
  72:                              class="right-side-image" />
  73:                          <span>
  74:                              <p>
  75:                                  Galileo Galilei (Italian pronunciation: [ɡaliˈlɛːo ɡaliˈlɛi]; 15 February 1564 –
  76:                                  8 January 1642), was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher
  77:                                  who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. His achievements include improvements
  78:                                  to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations and support for Copernicanism.
  79:                                  Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy", the "father
  80:                                  of modern physics", the "father of science", and "the Father of Modern Science".
  81:                              </p>
  82:                              <p>
  83:                                  His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic confirmation
  84:                                  of the phases of Venus, the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter
  85:                                  (named the Galilean moons in his honour), and the observation and analysis of sunspots.
  86:                                  Galileo also worked in applied science and technology, inventing an improved military
  87:                                  compass and other instruments.
  88:                              </p>
  89:                              <p>
  90:                                  Galileo's championing of heliocentrism was controversial within his lifetime, when
  91:                                  most subscribed to either geocentrism or the Tychonic system He met with opposition
  92:                                  from astronomers, who doubted heliocentrism due to the absence of an observed stellar
  93:                                  parallax. The matter was investigated by the Roman Inquisition in 1615, and they
  94:                                  concluded that it could only be supported as a possibility, not as an established
  95:                                  fact. Galileo later defended his views in Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World
  96:                                  Systems, which appeared to attack Pope Urban VIII and thus alienated him and the
  97:                                  Jesuits, who had both supported Galileo up until this point. He was tried by the
  98:                                  Inquisition, found "vehemently suspect of heresy", forced to recant, and spent the
  99:                                  rest of his life under house arrest. It was while Galileo was under house arrest
 100:                                  that he wrote one of his finest works, Two New Sciences. Here he summarized the
 101:                                  work he had done some forty years earlier, on the two sciences now called kinematics
 102:                                  and strength of materials.
 103:                              </p>
 104:                          </span>
 105:                      </Template>
 106:                  </atom:AccordionItem>
 107:                  <atom:AccordionItem Header="Nicolaus Copernicus">
 108:                      <Template>
 109:                          <img src="../images/scientists/nicolaus_copernicus.jpg" alt="Nicolaus Copernicus"
 110:                              title="Nicolaus Copernicus" class="left-side-image" />
 111:                          <span>
 112:                              <p>
 113:                                  Nicolaus Copernicus (German: Nikolaus Kopernikus; Italian: Nicolò Copernico; Polish:
 114:                                  Mikołaj Kopernik; in his youth, Niclas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543)
 115:                                  was a Renaissance astronomer and the first person to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric
 116:                                  cosmology which displaced the Earth from the center of the universe.
 117:                              </p>
 118:                              <p>
 119:                                  Copernicus' epochal book, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions
 120:                                  of the Celestial Spheres), published just before his death in 1543, is often regarded
 121:                                  as the starting point of modern astronomy and the defining epiphany that began the
 122:                                  scientific revolution. His heliocentric model, with the Sun at the center of the
 123:                                  universe, demonstrated that the observed motions of celestial objects can be explained
 124:                                  without putting Earth at rest in the center of the universe. His work stimulated
 125:                                  further scientific investigations, becoming a landmark in the history of science
 126:                                  that is often referred to as the Copernican Revolution.
 127:                              </p>
 128:                              <p>
 129:                                  Among the great polymaths of the Renaissance, Copernicus was a mathematician, astronomer,
 130:                                  jurist with a doctorate in law, physician, quadrilingual polyglot, classics scholar,
 131:                                  translator, artist, Catholic cleric, governor, diplomat and economist.
 132:                              </p>
 133:                          </span>
 134:                      </Template>
 135:                  </atom:AccordionItem>
 136:              </Items>
 137:          </atom:AtomicAccordion>
 138:      </div>
 139:      <br />
 140:      <sample:Source ID="Code" runat="server" />
 141:      </form>
 142:  </body>
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   1:  using System;
   2:  using System.Collections.Generic;
   3:  using System.Linq;
   4:  using System.Web;
   5:  using System.Web.UI;
   6:  using System.Web.UI.WebControls;
   7:   
   8:  namespace Atom.Website.Samples.AtomicAccordion
   9:  {
  10:      public partial class AutoHeight : System.Web.UI.Page
  11:      {
  12:          protected void Page_Load(object sender, EventArgs e)
  13:          {
  14:   
  15:          }
  16:   
  17:          protected void IsAutoHeight_CheckedChanged(object sender, EventArgs e)
  18:          {
  19:              AtomicAccordion1.AllowAutoHeight = IsAutoHeight.Checked;
  20:          }
  21:   
  22:      }
  23:  }
   1:  Imports System
   2:  Imports System.Collections.Generic
   3:  Imports System.Linq
   4:  Imports System.Web
   5:  Imports System.Web.UI
   6:  Imports System.Web.UI.WebControls
   7:  Namespace Atom.Website.Samples.AtomicAccordion
   8:      Public Partial Class AutoHeight
   9:          Inherits System.Web.UI.Page
  10:          Protected Sub Page_Load(sender As Object, e As EventArgs)
  11:          End Sub
  12:          Protected Sub IsAutoHeight_CheckedChanged(sender As Object, e As EventArgs)
  13:              AtomicAccordion1.AllowAutoHeight = IsAutoHeight.Checked
  14:          End Sub
  15:      End Class
  16:  End Namespace